Delivery of Legal Services to the Needy II Task Force

Final Report

May, 2003




Hon. Joy Flowers Conti, Tri-Chair

Jeffrey A. Ernico, Esq., Tri-Chair

Clifford E. Haines, Esq., Tri-Chair

Alfred J. Azen

Robert D. Beck, Esq.

Jack L. Bergstein, Esq.

Joseph A. Campagna, Jr., Esq.

Catherine C. Carr, Esq.

Edward F. Chacker, Esq.

Michelle DeBord, Esq.

Hon. Toby Lynn Dickman, Esq.

Joseph J. Dougherty, Esq.

Lawrence J. Fox, Esq.

Carlene Ruth Gallo, Esq.

Maureen P. Kelly, Esq.

John D. Killian, III, Esq.

Eugene Joseph Malady, Esq.

Jeffrey P. Lewis, Esq.

Representative Kathy Manderino

Nancy Potter Matthews, Esq.

Samuel W. Milkes, Esq.

Leslie Anne Miller, Esq.

Joseph A. O’Brien, Esq.

Elizabeth C. Price, Esq.

Robert V. Racunas Esq.

Hon. Sylvia H. Rambo

James H. Rowland, Jr., Esq.

Louis S. Rulli, Esq.

Paul A. Tufano, Esq..

David Unkovic, Esq.

Darlene R. Wong, Esq.

Lawrence V. Young, Esq.[1]

 

 

Daniel Joseph, Esq.–Board of Governor’s Liaison

David Keller Trevaskis, Esq.–Staff Liaison since October, 2001

Diann Stinney, Staff Liaison, 1998-2001

Dale Schell, Administrative Assistant



[1]This is the roster for the Delivery of Legal Services to the Needy II Task Force for 2002-2003.  Although there were few changes in Task Force membership over its five years of operation, a list of members from past years is available in Appendix A.









Preamble for Report of the Delivery of Legal Services to the Needy II Task Force

 

The Pennsylvania Bar Association’s Delivery of Legal Services to the Needy II Task Force has spent the past five years working to enhance the state of pro bono legal services and the delivery of legal services to the poor in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  From the drafting of the 1998 Interim Report to the Pennsylvania Bar Association, the Task Force has strived to move forward with several specific proposals to address the ongoing critical need for civil legal aid for the neediest among us in Pennsylvania.

The Task Force met as a large group in person more than ten times during its existence and conducted numerous large and small group conference calls to carry out its work.[1]  Three subcommittees of the Task Force reviewed, discussed, made and implemented policies concerning various aspects of Pennsylvania’s pro bono efforts and formal legal services to the poor. 

There have been great successes during the term of the Task Force.  The PBA has hired a full-time Pro Bono Coordinator and staffed a Pro Bono office; the Access to Justice Act has been passed and more than three-and-one-half-million dollars in new funding for legal services will be collected this year; and the Supreme Court has funded an IOLTA Pro Bono Grant competition for the past two years through a voluntary contribution solicited from lawyers in their annual licenses that has helped 20 counties establish or strengthen local pro bono efforts.[2]

There is still much that needs to be done.  The purpose of this report is to note not only all that has been accomplished by the Task Force, but to record all that still needs to be done.  The report is produced for the Board of this Association and for the Legal Services to the Public Committee[3] that will carry on the mission of this Task Force.


PENNSYLVANIA BAR ASSOCIATION DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES TO THE NEEDY II TASK FORCE

 

REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

In the spring of 1998, then Pennsylvania Bar Association President Leslie Anne Miller convened the Delivery of Legal Services to the Needy II Task Force to review the unmet civil legal needs of the poor, and to develop recommendations that would bring about meaningful change to this critical situation. The Honorable Joy Flowers Conti, now on the federal bench as a judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, but in 1998 a private practice attorney from Allegheny County, joined fellow private practice attorneys Jeffrey A. Ernico of Dauphin County and Clifford Haines of Philadelphia County, as tri-chairs of the Task Force.  Charged with the mission of improving civil legal aid in Pennsylvania, the tri-chairs worked with President Miller to pull together a highly diverse and talented Task Force dedicated to fulfilling the mission of “Equal Justice for All” and the duty to the poor of the Bar[4].  They called upon leading members of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the government, practicing attorneys from all areas of the state representing a wide variety of legal practices, interests and concerns, and project directors of local legal services programs, to lend their vision, experience and leadership to the mission of the Task Force.

 

To a large extent, the Task Force was charged to follow up on the 1989 efforts of a similarly chartered Task Force that was chaired by Joseph Jones, Sr., a past President of the Pennsylvania Bar Association.  The 1989 Task Force documented the great unmet civil legal needs of the poor in Pennsylvania and proposed many recommendations to help alleviate the pressing demand for help.  The Pennsylvania Bar Association’s Board of Governors and House of Delegates adopted all of the recommendations of the 1989 Task Force.  Although that first Task Force enjoyed great success[5], a number of significant recommendations were never implemented.

 

The defining principle of our legal system is the promise of equal justice under law for all. Yet, despite this promise, there is a crisis of unmet civil legal needs among the poor in Pennsylvania and throughout the nation.  The second Task Force thoroughly reviewed the work and status of the recommendations of the previous Task Force and decided on a series of goals for attacking this crisis.

 

The first goal was to secure an additional  $10 million funding base for civil legal aid for the neediest Pennsylvanians.  The Task Force sought to achieve that goal by the following means:

 

1)            Increase the attorney registration fee by approximately $50 for the 53,000 actively licensed attorneys to raise nearly $3 million annually.

 

2)            Secure an add-on of $5 dollars on all new civil filing fees and a surcharge of $4 on mortgage and deed filings to raise more than $7 million annually.

 

3)            Make concerted efforts to obtain cy pres awards and other supplemental funding of the delivery of legal services to the poor to raise $1 million annually.

 

The second goal focused on establishing effective pro bono programs in all 67 counties of Pennsylvania.  The Task Force noted in 1998 that, as a result of the cooperative efforts of the bar associations and their leadership, established pro bono programs existed in all but 14 county bar associations across the Commonwealth.  Nevertheless, the Task Force found most of the existing pro bono programs to be falling short of fulfilling the needs for pro bono attorney volunteers to adequately address existing client caseloads.  In 1998, more than one third of all Pennsylvania counties had from no participation to less than 20% local attorney participation in pro bono efforts.  Many additional counties reported poverty caseload backlogs at unacceptable levels.  Consequently, the Task Force identified a need to find ways to recruit and retain more pro bono attorney volunteers virtually throughout the Commonwealth.

 

The Task Force identified four key areas for concentration of present and future recruitment of attorney volunteers.  They were 1) the organized bar associations; 2) the courts; 3) law schools, and 4) senior members of the bar.  Each of the foregoing areas were addressed by subcommittees of the Task Force and the Task Force developed some concrete recommendations relating to efforts the PBA could initiate to help the organized bar associations to develop more programs and recruit more volunteers.[6]

 

Although the Task Force was able to collect some information on the level of pro bono activities by Pennsylvania attorneys on a county-by-county basis, the available information proved quite limited and easily became dated.   Without a reliable and effective tool in place to gather and measure the efforts of individual attorneys in addressing their ethical responsibility under Rule 6.1 of the Rules of Professional Conduct, the Task Force believed it would be impossible to realistically measure the pro bono efforts of Pennsylvania lawyers.

 

The Task Force noted that one of the recommendations of the 1989 Report of the first Task Force for Legal Services to the Needy was “to require all licensed attorneys to report annually to the Court what they did in the preceding year to satisfy the obligation to render public interest legal services under Rule 6.1 of the Pennsylvania Code of Professional Conduct.”  This recommendation on reporting was not implemented through the efforts of the first Task Force; members of the second Task Force believed

that a simple provision could be added to existing attorney annual registration forms to provide the important information.[7]

            The Task Force presented eight recommendations to the PBA House of Delegates and all eight were approved by the House in May of 1999; the eight recommendations were:

 

1.                  The Pennsylvania Bar Association hereby establishes a program to encourage and coordinate the development and expansion of pro bono programs in each county of this Commonwealth, and to administer a pro bono program itself for counties that are unable to do so themselves.

 

            2.         The Pennsylvania Bar Association hereby establishes a program to coordinate Pro Bono Assistance Teams to assist counties without existing pro bono programs to establish such programs, and at the request of the local county bar association, to evaluate and make recommendations concerning existing pro bono programs, to help improve those programs, and to share “best practices” of pro bono programs from wherever they exist.  

 

            3.         The Pennsylvania Bar Association calls upon the leaders of the judiciary at all levels of the court system to commit themselves to an active role in the discussion and furtherance of pro bono representation of the poor, and encourages the law schools to instill a pro bono ethic in their law students.

 

            4.         The Pennsylvania Bar Association encourages the deans of Pennsylvania’s law schools to assure that all law students are educated about the responsibility of and benefits from the pro bono representation of the poor, and encourages the law schools to instill a pro bono ethic in their law students.

 

            5.         The Pennsylvania Bar Association encourages senior members of the bar to become more active and lead the way in their local county pro bono programs.

 

            6.         In order to implement recommendations 1 through 5, the Pennsylvania Bar Association recommends to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania the addition of an add-on charge of $5 to each mandatory continuing legal education credit for the primary purpose of facilitating the pro bono representation of the poor by attorneys.  Through a program established by the Pennsylvania Bar Association, funds from this add-on would be directed to programs designated by the principal local bar association in the county where the attorney paying the fee has his/her principal office.  These programs shall provide lawyers with opportunities to fulfill their professional responsibility to provide pro bono legal services for the poor or provide professionally staffed legal services for the poor.  For out-of-state attorneys, the designation would be directed by the Pennsylvania Bar Association.  The add-on charge shall apply only to the annual mandatory credits and is waived on all additional, non-bankable credits.  The charge is also waived when a non-profit provider waives tuition costs to a speaker or attendee and further is waived on all credits for attorneys during their first five (5) years of practice.  

 

            7.         To supplement the add-on to MCLE credits to facilitate the representation of the poor, the Pennsylvania Bar Association modifies its existing policy as adopted by the House of Delegates in 1990 and hereby commits itself to the passage of legislation that will increase filing fees for all first filings, for which fees are presently charged, including filings in the appellate civil courts and trial courts by $5 and in the district justice, and municipal courts by $4, and by increasing filing fees for deeds, mortgages and property transfers by $4, with the revenues generated thereby allocated to the delivery of legal services to the poor through the Pennsylvania Legal Services.

 

            8.         The Pennsylvania Bar Association directs its staff to establish a program whereby attorneys general, trial lawyers, and the judiciary itself, are educated of the judiciary’s authority under the cy pres doctrine to direct class action residuals and other unclaimed funds to support professionally staffed poverty law offices.

 

            The successes of the Task Force and the opportunities for the Legal Services to the Public Committee in carrying forward the Task Force’s mission are best observed by looking at each recommendation and reviewing its status as of this report.

 

Recommendation One

The Pennsylvania Bar Association hereby establishes a program to encourage and coordinate the development and expansion of pro bono programs in each county of this Commonwealth, and to administer a pro bono program itself for counties that are unable to do so themselves.

 

The PBA Pro Bono Office was opened in the fall of 2001 with the hiring of David Keller Trevaskis as full-time Pro Bono Coordinator and Dale Schell as half-time Pro Bono Administrative Assistant.  The PBA Pro Bono Office has surveyed every county[8] about its Pro Bono activities and has worked with local and statewide legal services programs to establish, expand and strengthen pro bono programs in each county.  Although the PBA Pro Bono Office fields a number of requests for civil legal aid each week,[9] providing local contact information for persons seeking such aid and connecting legal services providers with local pro bono attorney contacts, there is currently no centrally administered pro bono program at the PBA. 

 

The PBA Pro Bono Office and the Legal Services to the Public Committee have worked with Pennsylvania Legal Services on a computer information project called ProBono.Net that will eventually allow attorneys from across the Commonwealth to sign up for Pro Bono cases and access legal materials.  A similar model for clients seeking support is also being developed.[10]

 

To encourage the growth of Pro Bono programs across the Commonwealth, the Pro Bono Office and the Legal Services to the Public Committee have held annual pro Bono Conferences as part of the PBA Annual Meeting the past two years.[11]  The Pro Bono Office has also, in cooperation with Pennsylvania Legal Services, held more than two dozen Pro Bono Ethics CLE workshops across Pennsylvania.[12]

 

Recommendation Two

The Pennsylvania Bar Association hereby establishes a program to coordinate Pro Bono Assistance Teams to assist counties without existing pro bono programs to establish such programs, and at the request of the local county bar association, to evaluate and make recommendations concerning existing pro bono programs, to help improve those programs, and to share “best practices” of pro bono programs from wherever they exist.

 

Pro Bono Assistance Teams have worked successfully in such areas as the joint Wyoming-Sullivan judicial district where these two counties, showing no pro bono participation at the start of the Task Force in 1998, now boast 100% attorney involvement.  The difficulty in getting a similar foothold in another county, despite repeated overtures, shows the major limitation of the Team approach—it works well when local attorneys are receptive to organized pro bono service, but it cannot easily overcome strong local opposition to such efforts. 

 

Recommendation Three

The Pennsylvania Bar Association calls upon the leaders of the judiciary at all levels of the court system to commit themselves to an active role in the discussion and furtherance of pro bono representation of the poor, and encourages the law schools to instill a pro bono ethic in their law students.

 

Ongoing efforts to have the leadership of the courts and the law schools in Pennsylvania support civil legal aid for the neediest among us continue.  From Supreme Court Justices[13] to entire county Court of Common Pleas benches,[14] more and more judicial leaders are calling for pro bono service. All of the Pennsylvania law schools receive IOLTA grants to support civil legal aid outreach by their students, though only the University of Pennsylvania School of Law requires public service for graduation.[15]

 

Recommendation Four

The Pennsylvania Bar Association encourages the deans of Pennsylvania’s law schools to assure that all law students are educated about the responsibility of and benefits from the pro bono representation of the poor, and encourages the law schools to instill a pro bono ethic in their law students.

 

There are educational outreach opportunities at each Pennsylvania law school.  The Miller Center at Pennsylvania State University’s Dickinson Law School is a model for the type of program envisioned by this recommendation.[16]

 

Recommendation Five

The Pennsylvania Bar Association encourages senior members of the bar to become more active and lead the way in their local county pro bono programs.

 

Senior attorneys have been asked by PBA leadership and members of the Task Force to provide direct legal service to the poor.  Older lawyers have also been sought to mentor younger attorneys who perform pro bono work.  There are no statistics available about the involvement of senior attorneys.

 

Recommendation Six

In order to implement recommendations 1 through 5, the Pennsylvania Bar Association recommends to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania the addition of an add-on charge of $5 to each mandatory continuing legal education credit for the primary purpose of facilitating the pro bono representation of the poor by attorneys.  Through a program established by the Pennsylvania Bar Association, funds from this add-on would be directed to programs designated by the principal local bar association in the county where the attorney paying the fee has his/her principal office.  These programs shall provide lawyers with opportunities to fulfill their professional responsibility to provide pro bono legal services for the poor or provide professionally staffed legal services for the poor.  For out-of-state attorneys, the designation would be directed by the Pennsylvania Bar Association.  The add-on charge shall apply only to the annual mandatory credits and is waived on all additional, non-bankable credits.  The charge is also waived when a non-profit provider waives tuition costs to a speaker or attendee and further is waived on all credits for attorneys during their first five (5) years of practice.

 

The PBA sought a five dollar per credit of CLE to be devoted to Legal Aid.  Since each attorney is required to take 12 credits, the annual charge would have been $60.  However, the CLE Board rejected the concept before it was transmitted to the Court, and the PBA leadership transformed the request that was sent by letter to Chief Justice Flaherty to the mandatory assessment per attorney.  PBA leadership left it to the Court to determine how the assessment would be made (by CLE credit or otherwise).  The Court determined to follow through with a voluntary assessment that has resulted in nearly $150,000 being collected since 2001.

 

Recommendation Seven

To supplement the add-on to MCLE credits to facilitate the representation of the poor, the Pennsylvania Bar Association modifies its existing policy as adopted by the House of Delegates in 1990 and hereby commits itself to the passage of legislation that will increase filing fees for all first filings, for which fees are presently charges, including filings in the appellate civil courts, trial courts by $5 and in the district justice, and municipal courts by $4, and by increasing filing fees for deeds, mortgages and property transfers by $4, with the revenues generated thereby allocated to the delivery of legal services to the poor through the Pennsylvania Legal Services.

 

 

The Access to Justice Act, Act 122 of 2002,was signed into law by Governor Mark Schweiker on October 2, 2002 and took effect November 1, 2002.  It adds a small surcharge on the filing of legal papers in courthouse offices in order to generate sorely-needed additional funds to help low-income Pennsylvanians get civil legal aid.  This surcharge will help assure access to justice for those who need, but cannot afford civil legal assistance.  The Bill passed with strong bipartisan support in the House and Senate.  The state’s Judicial Computer system is also funded by the new surcharge.  This is used to support the statewide computerization of the Pennsylvania Courts.  The Access to Justice Act comprises about 10-20% of the funding generated under this Bill, with the vast majority of funds going to statewide computerization.  By passing this Bill, Pennsylvania joined 27 other states using surcharges to help fund legal aid.

There is a $10 surcharge.  Initially, $9 of the surcharge will go to the courts; $1 to legal aid.  The legal aid portion will increase to $2 in four years. Based on recent data, it is estimated that the portion of the filing fee surcharge dedicated to civil legal aid will initially raise $3.8 million annually to help ensure access to justice for those unable to afford legal representation.[17]

 

Recommendation Eight

The Pennsylvania Bar Association directs its staff to establish a program whereby attorneys general, trial lawyers, and the judiciary itself, are educated of the judiciary’s authority under the cy pres doctrine to direct class action residuals and other unclaimed funds to support professionally staffed poverty law offices.

 

materials on Cy Pres have been collected and are available for dissemination.  Presentations to the groups above will be made through the Legal Services to the Public Committee’s Development Subcommittee.[18]


Appendix A....................... Task Force Reports

 

Appendix B....................... Minutes

 

Appendix C....................... IOLTA Pro Bono Grants

 

Appendix D....................... Legal Services to the Public Committee

 

Appendix E....................... Task Force I 1990 Report

 

Appendix F....................... Task Force II Subcommittee Reports

 

Appendix G....................... 2003 County Pro Bono Survey Summary

 

Appendix H....................... Samples of Civil Legal Aid Requests

 

Appendix I....................... ProBono.Net

 

Appendix J....................... Pro Bono Conference Materials

 

Appendix K....................... Pro Bono Ethics CLE Traveling Roadshow

 

Appendix L....................... Chief Justice John P. Flaherty Letter

 

Appendix M....................... Dauphin County Judges Letter

 

Appendix N            Summary of Pennsylvania Law School Public Service Programs

 

Appendix O            Miller Center – Description

 

Appendix P            Access to Justice Act

 

Appendix Q            Cy Pres Materials



[1]See Appendix B for minutes from these meetings and conference calls.

[2]See Appendix C for a description of the IOLTA Pro Bono Grants for 2001-2003.

[3]The PBA Committee charged with this mission is currently called “Equal Justice for the Poor”; the Committee is in the process of being renamed as listed here, its traditional name and the name it had when the Task Force was first organized.  The 2003-2004 roster for the Committee is listed in Appendix D.

[4]The duty of the Bar to provide civil legal aid for the poorest Pennsylvanians is clear:

        The Constitution of Pennsylvania, Art. I, Sec. 11, states:

“All courts shall be open; and every man for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.”

Rule 6.1 of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court’s Rules of Professional Conduct, states, in part:

A Lawyer should render public interest legal service.  A lawyer may discharge this responsibility by providing professional services at no fee or a reduced fee to personas of limited means and by financial support for organizations that provide legal services to personals of limited means.”

        The Comment following Rule 6.1 adds, in part:

“The rights and responsibilities of individuals and organizations in the Unites States are increasingly defined in legal terms.  As a consequence legal assistance in coping with the web of statutes, rules and regulations is imperative for persons of modest and limited means, as well as for the relatively well-to-do.”

“Every lawyer, regardless of professional prominence or professional work-load, should find time to participate in or otherwise support they provision of legal services to the disadvantaged.  The provision of free legal services to those unable to pay reasonable fees continues to be an obligation of each lawyer as well as the profession generally, but the efforts of individual lawyers are often not enough to meet the need.  Thus, it has been necessary for the profession and government to institute additional programs to provide legal services.  Accordingly, legal aid offices, lawyer referral services and other related programs have been developed, and others will be developed by the profession and the government.  Every lawyer should support all proper efforts to meet this need for legal services.” 

        The Pennsylvania Bar Association Articles of Incorporation state as one of the organization’s purposes:

            “To see that no one, on account of poverty, is denied his or her legal rights.”

[5]The 1990 Report of the first Task Force is found in Appendix E.

[6]The Task Force Subcommittee on the Role of Organized Bar Associations recommended the establishment of Pro Bono Review Teams across the Commonwealth to both 1) assist the counties without existing pro bono programs to establish pro bono programs and 2) review and evaluate existing pro bono programs for purposes of assisting those programs in improving the level of volunteer participation and introducing innovative new ideas to improve on the overall delivery of pro bono services.

The Subcommittee on the Role of the Courts developed ten recommendations encouraging the members of the Bench to become an integral part of the local and statewide recruitment of pro bono volunteer attorneys.

The Subcommittee on the Role of Law Schools submitted a report addressing some of the issues which Law Schools were facing with regard to the promotion of volunteerism among their students and student organizations and made eight recommendations on how to confront those issues. 

The Subcommittee on the Role of Senior Members of the Bar contacted Senior Bar member groups and discussed a variety of ways in which Senior members of the Bar could effectively participate in pro bono programs.  Some ideas considered included 1) the use of senior attorneys in brief advice consultations either by telephone or in routinely scheduled mornings or afternoons at a local legal services program office; 2) acting as second chair with younger attorneys in any number of pro bono cases; 3) serving as paralegals if they had not maintained active licensure; and 4) in assisting the local bar leadership in the recruitment of attorney volunteers.

Appendix F contains the reports of these Subcommittees.

[7]The Task Force proposed that the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania incorporate as a part of the annual registration requirement for all attorneys, a series of questions designed to establish the level, nature and extent of the pro bono contribution of every licensed attorney in Pennsylvania.  Each attorney, registering for a license to practice law, would report the extent of his or her pro bono activity for the previous calendar year in terms of hours spent doing pro bono work.  Additionally, each attorney would state the amount of monetary contributions he or she had made to organizations providing legal services for the poor in the previous calendar year.  The Task Force envisioned providing an hourly fee conversion for the hours of pro bono work provided.  That figure, added to the actual dollars donated, would reflect the total contribution of the Bar to civil legal aid in Pennsylvania.

The Task Force adopted a definition of “qualifying pro bono activity” for the purpose of this reporting requirement.  The definition would be a part of the registration form and would read as follows:

 

 

 

(footnote 8 continued)

Qualifying pro bono services are defined to include the following services:

Professional services rendered in civil matters, and in those criminal matters for which the government is not obligated to provide funds of legal representation, to persons who are financially unable to compensate counsel;

Activities related to improving the administration of justice by simplifying the legal process for, or increasing the availability and quality of legal services to poor persons; and

Professional services to charitable, religious, civic and educational organizations in matters designed predominantly to address the needs of poor persons.

In submitting the annual registration application, every attorney would indicate a number of hours and dollar amount on the registration form for the year immediately preceding registration.  Under the proposal, no minimum number or amount would be necessary to complete the form and no sanctions will be imposed for reporting zero in each category.  Failure to provide answers to the questions, however, would result in the suspension of an attorney’s license for failure to register until the information was provided.  Each attorney would be advised that a misstatement of fact could be considered a material falsehood.

Under this proposal, the information regarding pro bono hours and pro bono contributions returned to the office of the Court Administrator would be reviewed for statistical purposes only.  No individual attorney’s contribution would be disclosed publicly or otherwise, however, information regarding total hours and dollars would be reported on a statewide, regional or local basis.

[8]See Appendix G for County Pro Bono Survey summary.

[9]See Appendix H for a sampling of civil legal aid requests to PBA Pro Bono Office.

[10]See Appendix I for information about ProBono.Net.

[11]See Appendix J for materials from the two Pro Bono Conferences.

[12]See Appendix K for information about the Pro Bono Ethics CLE Traveling Roadshow.

[13]See letter from Chief Justice John P. Flaherty in Appendix L.

[14]See Dauphin County Court letter in Appendix M.

[15]See Appendix N for a summary of Pennsylvania law school public service programs.

[16]See Appendix O for a description of the Miller Center.

[17]See Appendix P for a copy of the Access to Justice Act.

[18]See Cy Pres materials in Appendix Q.