Corporal Punishment- Corporal punishment involves the physical punishment for an offense and is legal in Pennsylvania, though a school district may not support it.
Due Process- "Due process" is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment that states that everyone has the right to be treated fairly when accused of wrongdoing by the government.
Establishment Clause- This clause of the First Amendment states that the government can't encourage or promote religion in any way. Because public schools are run by the government, this means that public schools can't encourage or promote religion.
Expulsion- An expulsion is more severe than a suspension; it involves an exclusion from school for more than 10 days in a row and may lead to permanent removal from a school.
Free Exercise Clause- This clause of the First Amendment gives everyone the right to practice his or her religion (or to be non-religious). The government can't penalize a student for religious beliefs. This means that public schools can't discriminate against students because of their religion or their desire not to practice religion.
Lemon Test- A three-part test the Supreme Court created in Lemon v. Kurtzman in 1971 to decide if the government is acting in a way that promotes or "establishes" religion. A government act or policy that passes the “Lemon test” is constitutional, while one that doesn't is unconstitutional. The three parts are that the government act or policy must not have a religious purpose, must not end up promoting or favoring any set of religious beliefs, and must not get the government closely involved with religion.
Reasonable Suspicion- A suspicion can be considered "reasonable" when it's based on common sense and not just a hunch or rumor. Courts have tended to give the benefit of the doubt to school officials when deciding questions related to reasonable suspicion.
Suspension- A suspension is considered to be an exclusion from school for one to 10 days in a row. A student can be suspended by a principal or another person in charge of a school.
Title IX- This is the federal law that prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs and activities that receive money from the federal government. Because public schools get money from the federal government, the schools must enforce Title IX and protect students from any sexual harassment or discrimination.